The MSc in Linguistics aims to build students foundation in pure linguistics. The programme includes central areas of linguistics while also allowing the students to develop their own particular areas of interest. The programme covers traditional core areas of phonetics, phonology, syntax, discourse analysis and semantics, as well as the interdisciplinary fields of psycholinguistics, computational linguistics, corpus linguistics and anthropological linguistics.
The MSc Linguistics programme is structured to fulfill all the criteria outlined by HEC. The MSc programme is divided into four semesters spread over two academic years. Each semester students will be expected to study three core and three optional courses.
Educational linguistics in Pakistan
Language universals and linguistic typology
Languages of the world
Field research in linguistics
Language and gender
1: Basic concepts in linguistics
This course introduces the students to the basic definitions and concepts used in linguistics. The rudiments of phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax and socio- linguistics are touched upon briefly. The course presupposes no previous knowledge of linguistics. The specific subjects to be covered are as follows:
(a) Definitions of linguistics
(b) Branches of linguistics
(c) Brief history of the discipline
(i) Medieval/classical concepts
(ii) Ferdinand de Saussure
(iii) Noam Chomsky
(d) Rudimentary phonetics and phonology
(e) Definitions in morphology and syntax
(f) Basic definitions in semantics
(g) Language and society
(i) Varieties of language
(ii) Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
(iv) Linguistic politeness
(h) Language planning and language politics
(i) Language and education
Aitchison, Jean. 1976. The Articulate Mammal London: Hutchison. Latest edition , 2007.
Aitchison, Jean.1987. Words in the Mind Oxford: Blackwell
Crystal, David.1971. Linguistics Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1990 edition
Lyons, John. 1970. Chomsky London: Fontana Press.
Lyons, John.1981. An Introduction to Linguistics Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990 edition
Miller, George A. 1999 The Science of Words New York: Scientific American Library
Pavel, Thomas.1992. The Feud of Language Oxford: Blackwell
Rahman, Tariq. An Introduction to Linguistics Lahore:Vanguard, 1987- Revised and expanded edition Delhi:Orient Blackswan, 2010 and Karachi: Oxford University
Robins, R.H. 1985 General Linguistics: An Introductory Survey New York:Longman Group
Simpson, J.K.Y. 1979. A First Course in Linguistics Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
Trask, R.L. 1995 Language: The Basics London, New York: Raitledge
Yule, George.1985. The Study of Language: An Introduction Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
2: Research methodology
The aim of this course is to familiarize students with:
(i) Elementary methods of social science research
(ii) The presentation of results (writing of research reports, papers
Dissertations and monographs)
Methods of Social Sciences Research
(a) Research design and preliminary steps towards research
© Hypothesis formation
(f) Questionnaires, schedules and interviews
(g) Sampling random and non-random
(i) The use of primary and secondary sources in research
(j) Ethnographic research methods
(k) Focused Groups Discussion (FGD)
The Presentation of Results
(a) Results may be presented in the form of research reports, papers, discussions, monographs and books. Students will be taught the basic principles of writing research report and papers under the following heads. Literature survey; clear exposition of the research problem, Hypothesis and its operational definition; the use of sources and how to refer to them, the language of research reports; some Do’s and Don’ts of research writing; the endnote/footnote methods of documentation; the author data method of documentation; how to prepare a bibliography, proof reading and editing.
(b) Students will also be introduced to basic statistical concepts used in quantitative research. The idea is to equip them with enough statistical skills to use the sampling methods, test hypothesis and find mean, median, mode etc.
Chicago University 1992.Chicago Manual of Style.
Flower, Floyd J. 1993. Survey Research Methods London:Saga Publications.
Gibaldi, Joseph and Achtert. Walter S.1995. Modern Language Association Handbook for writers of Research papers New York: MLA.
Gilreath, Charles L. 1984. Computerized Literature Searching London & Boulder: Westview Press.
Goode, William J. and Hatt, Paul K.1952. Methods in Social Research New York:McGraw Hill Ltd. London:St.Martini’s Press.
Mc Neill, Patrick. 1985. Research Methods London and New York: Routledge
Nachmias, Chava and Nchmias, David.1981. Research Methods in the Social Sciences
Newman, P. and M.S.Ratliff.2001. Linguistic fieldwork, Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press
Popper, Kar. 1959. The Logic of Scientific Discovery London: Hutchinson,1980 edition
Sanford Labovitz and Robert Hagedom. 1985. Introduction to Social Research, New York:McGraw-Hill Book Coy.
Sunders, William B and Pinhey, Thomas K.1974. The Conduct of Social Research, New York ; Holt; Rinehart and Winston.
Sunford Labovitz and Robert Hagedom. 1985. Introduction to Social Research, New York:McGraw-Hill Book Coy. This ed.1990.
3: Linguistic Analysis
This course presupposes knowledge of the basic concepts used in linguistics. As such it should be taken up by students who have already passed Li-301. It introduces students to fairly advanced concepts about the nature of language, phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntactic theories, transformational generative grammar (TG), pragmatics, psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics. The specific subjects to be taught are given below:
1.Language, thought and ‘reality’:
(a) The nature of language
(b) The relation of linguistic forms to cognition and concrete externalities, examining the concepts of ‘language’ and ‘parole’. ‘Competence’ and ‘performance’, signifier’ and ‘signified’ etc. Reference to Saucier, etc.
© Languages and dialects
(d) Spoken and written language
(e) Standard language
(f) How languages change
2. The sounds of language:
(a) Airflow mechanisms
(b) Vowels and consonants
© Place of articulation
(d) Manner of articulation
(e) The vowel space, height, back ness, rounding and nasalization
(f) Phonetic transcription and IPA
(g) Acoustics and perceptual phonetics
(h) Phonemes and allophones
(i) Phonological analysis
(j) Ambiguities and analytical problems
(k) Introduction to phonological features, feature analysis and marked ness
3. Morphology and Morphophonology
(a) What is a world?
(b) What is morpheme?
(e) Morphophonemic rules
(f) Morphological theories
4. Constituent analysis.
(a) Identifying constituents
(b) Internal structure of APs and PPs
(a) What’s the subject?
(b) Valence and transitivity
(c) Semantic roles and grammatical relations
(d) Case and voice
6. Word classes
(a) Identifying grammatical and phonological properties of words classes
(b) How to correlate word classes and semantic classes
7. Grammatical categories
(c) Tense, aspect, mood, evidentiality etc.
(a) Complementation and
(a) What does it mean to ‘mean’?
(b) Componential analysis and semantic features
(b) Reference and definiteness
(c) Discourse analysis
(d) Argot and jargon
(a) First language learning
(b) Second and foreign language learning
(c) Aphasia studies
(d) Hemispheric specialization
Austin, J.L. 1962. How to Do Thins with Words, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Burgess, Anthony.1964 Language Made Plain London: Hodder and Stoughton Ltd.
Cambridge, Mass: M1T Press
Chambers, J.K.1995. Sociolinguistic Theory Oxford: Blackwell.
Chomsky, Noam, 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax Jovanovich.
Lanacker, Ronald W. 1972. Fundamentals of Linguistic Analysis. NY: Harcourt Brace
London: Routledge. 3rd reprint
O’Connor, J.D. 1973. Phonetics, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
Piaget, Jean.2001. Language and Thoughts of the Child London: Routledge, 3rd reprint.
Payne, Thomas. 2006. Exploring language structure: A Student’s Guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Roach, Peter .1991 English Phonetics and Phonology, Cambridge: Cambridge UK.
Spencer, A.J.1991. Morphological Theory Oxford: Blackwell
Thomas, Jenny.1995. Meaning in Interaction: An Introduction to Pragmatics London: Longman.
Wardhaugh, Ronald. 2006. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, New York: Wiley-Blackwell.
4: Phonetics and Phonology
Phonetics is the science of the description of sounds: how and when they are produced by human beings; what symbols are used to transcribe them and how they may be distinguished from one another. Phonology describes the sound system of a language. This course will introduce the students to both phonetics and phonology. The specific subjects to be covered are as follows:
1. Topics in Phonetics:
(a) Air-stream mechanism
(b) Articulatory cavity
(c) Place of articulation; manner of articulation
(d) Phonemics in human language
(e) Speech production
(f) Vowels and consonants (height and closeness)
(k) Assimilation, dissimilation
(m) Distinctive features
2. Topics in Phonology:
(a) Internal word structure
(b) Syllable:onset, nucleus, coda
(d) Stress and stress-pattern
(e) Segment and Feature
(f) Phonemic rules
(g) Phonological representation
(h) Internal word structure
(i) Phonological component, lexicon
(j) Vowel harmony, consonant harmony
3. Some theories in Phonology:
(a) Auto-segmental phonology
(b) Metrical phonology
(c) Prosodic phonology
(d) Dependency phonology
Anderson, S.R. 1985 Phonology in the Twentieth Century Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bloomfield, Leonard.1974.Language New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Beckman, M. 1986. Stress and Non-Stress Accent Riverton, Foris Publications
Cambridge Blackwell Publications
Carr. Phillip, 1993, Phonology, London:Tthe Macmillan Press.
Chomsky, Noam and Halle, Morris. 1968. The Sound Pattern of English, New York: Harper & Row.
Clark, J and Yallop, C.1990. An introduction to Phonetics and Phonology Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Clements, George N.1985. ‘The Geometry of Phonological Features’, Phonology Yearbook 2, pp. 225-252.
De Lacy, Paul. 2007. The Cambridge Handbook of Phonology Cambridge: Cambridge UP.
Donegan, Patricia. 1985. On the Natural Phonology of Vowels New York: Harper and Row.
Giegrich, Heinz J. 1993. English Phonology Cambridge: Cambridge Textbooks
Hayes, B.1995.Metrical Stress Theory, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hogg, Richard & C.B. McCully, 1989, Metrical Phonology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Katamba. Francis, 1989, A Introduction to Phonology. London: Longman Group.
Kensotowicz, M.1994. Phonology in Generative Grammar Cambridge: Blackwell.
Laver, J. 1994. Principles of Phonetics, Cambridge: Cambridge UP.
Lass, Roger, 1989, Phonology, Cambridge Textbooks.
Roach, Peter. 2005 English Phonetics and Phonology: A Practical Course Cambridge: Cambridge UP.
5. Morphology and Syntax
The aim of this course is to introduce the students to current concepts of Morphology and Syntax. It is assumed that students taking this course have leaned the definitions of basic concepts such as Morpheme, Morph, Morphophonemic rules, allomorph etc in their foundation course (Li-301). They would also know theories of PS-rules, transformational grammar and movement in both of Li-301 and Li-303. This course, therefore, takes them further on to some relatively more advanced work in Morphology and Syntax. The specific areas to be covered are:
(a) Morphological theories
(b) Syntactic theories
(c) Government and binding theory
(f) Mormphophonemic rules
(g) Theta roles
(h) Markedness and universality
(j) Basic introduction to the Minimalist approach to Syntax suggested readings.
(k) Cook, V.J., 1991 Chomsky’s Universal grammar-an-intoduction, Basil Blackwell UK.
(l) Beaugrande, Robert de, 1993, Linguistic theory, Longman, London.
Carnie, Andrew, 2006: Syntax: A Generative Introduction, 2nd edition, Oxford: Blackwell.
Chomsky, Noam. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Chomsky, Noam. 1995. The Minimalist Program, Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press.
Chomky, Noam. 1986. Barriers, Cambridge,Mass: MIT Press.
Haegeman, Liliane, 1994: Introduction to Government and Binding Theory, 2nd edition, Oxford: Blackwell.
Radford, A.1981. Transformational Grammar, Cambridge: Cambridge UP.
Radford, Andrew, 2004: Minimalist Syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Reimsdijk, H.Van and Williams, E. 1986. Introduction to the Theory of Grammar, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Rosen, S.T. 1990. Argument Structure Complex Predicate Garland: New York.
Zagona, K. 1987. Verb Phrase Syntax Kluwer: Dordrecht.
6: Languages of Pakistan
The aim of this course is to introduce the students to the languages of Pakistan and the policies which affect their use and attitudes towards them. Students will focus on the major languages but they will also be introduced to the minor languages which they could choose for projects and research essays. The language families of Pakistani languages will be discussed in the light of research on this subject. The following languages will be analyzed in detail.
(h) Minor languages of Pakistan
(i) Literacy in Pakistani languages
(j) Globalization, government policies and their effects on Pakistani languages
(k) Social attitudes towards Pakistani languages
Cardona, George and Jain, Dhanesh (ed) 2007. The Indo-Aryan Languages London:Routledge.
Chatterji, Sumiti Kumar. 1942. Indo-Aryan and Hindi, Calcutta: Firma K.L. Makhopadhyay. Revised edition.1960.
Gill, Harjeet Singh (ed) 1973 Linguistic Atlas of the Punjab Patiala: Dept of Anthropological Linguistics, Punjab University.
Junejo, Abdul Jabbar & Prem hidayat. 1994. Thara Ji Boli Hyderabad: Sindh Language Authority.
Katzner, Kenneth (ed).1977. The Languages of the World London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Mansoor, Sabiha. 1993, Punjabi, Urdu, English in Pakistan: A sociolinguistic Study, Lahore: Vanguard.
Pray, B.R. 1970. Topics in Hindi-Urdu Grammar Berkley: Center for South and Southeast Asia Studies, University of California
Shackle, C and Snell, R. 1990. Hindi and Urdu since 1800: A Common Reader London: School of Oriental and African Studies.
Shackle, Christopher. 1976. The Siraiki Language of Central Pakistan London: School of Oriental and African Studies.
Summer Institute of Linguistics. 1992. The Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, Islamabad: SIL and NIPS, 5 volumes.
The course introduces the students to the relationship of language with society. It looks at how language is used in society and how it expresses, constructs and reinforces social reality and the perceptions people have about it. Basic notions like varieties of language, language and identity, language and gender, language and class etc., are taught from a theoretical point of view.
The specific subjects which will be covered are:
(a) Meaning of sociolinguistics
(a) Popular terms: second language, mother tongue, multilingualism, lingua
franca, bilingualism, foreign language, accent, dialect.
(b) Varieties of Language According to User
(i) The challenges in drawing a cut between language and dialect
(ii) Geographical variation of language
(iii) Social variation of language: social class, ethnicity, age, gender and
(c) Language Variation According to Use
(i) Modes of discourse
(iv) Standard and non-standard language
(d) Language Planning and Language Policy
(i) What does language planning entail?
(ii) How is planning language unjust
(iii) Social and political motivations for language planning
(e) Language and Culture
(i) Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
(ii) Linguistic relativism, linguistic determinism
(iv) Identity, linguistic imperialism and language rights
(f) Language Contact
(i) Code switching and code mixing
(ii) Multilingualism and diglossia
(iv) Language maintenance vs. language shift and language death
(v) Pidgins and creoles
Beard, A. 2004. Language Change London: Routledge
Coates, J.1993. Women, Men, and Language: A Sociolinguistic Account of Sex New York: Longman
Fairclough, N.1992. Discourse and Social Change Cambridge: Polity Press
Fasold, Ralph. 1984. The Sociolinguistics of Society Vol.1 Oxford: Blackwell
Fishman, J.A. 1971. Sociolinguistics: A Brief Introduction Rowley, Mass: .
Hodge, R. and Kress, G. 1988. Social Semiotics Cambridge: Polity Press
Hymes, D. (ed) 1964. Language in Culture and Society: A Reader in Linguistics and Anthropology New York
Joseph, J.2004. Language and Identity: National, Ethnic, Religious Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kress, G. 1989. Linguistic Processes in Sociocultural Practice 2nd (ed) Oxford: Oxford University Press
Meyerhoff, M. 2006. Introducing Sociolinguistics, New York and London: Routledge.R
Neumeger, Frederick. 1988. Linguistics: The Cambridge Survey: IV: The Socio-Cultural Context Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Paulston, C.B (1997), Epilogue: Some Concluding Thoughts on Linguistic Human Rights in Hamel, R. and Fishman, J (Eds), International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter.
Rahman, Tariq. 1999.Language, Education & Culture Karachi: OUP
Salzmann, Z.1993. Language, Culture and Society:An introduction to Linguistic Anthropology, Boulder; Westview Press
Tollefson, J.W. (1991), Planning Language,Planning Inequality: Language Policy in the Community, London and New York, Longman.
Trudgill, Peter & Jenny Cheshire (eds). 1998. The Sociolinguistics Reader. Vol.1. London.
Trudgill, Peter 2000 (4th edition) Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, Harmondsworth: Penguin.
8. Language Policy and Politics in Pakistan
The aim of this course is to examine the link between Language, Policy and Practices and Power. Both ethnic and nationalist policies will be part of the examination. Basic concepts like language planning, power dimensions of power, national language, official language etc will be introduced and then specific topics given below will be studied in detail:
(a) Language policy and language planning
(b) Language Practices and Policies in Mughal India
(c) British language policies and their consequences for Pakistan
(d The Hindi-Urdu controversy and the Pakistan movement
(e) The Bengali language movement
(f) Language and ethnic politics in Pakistan, the Sindhi, Pashto, Siraiki, Balochi
and Punjabi language movements
(g) The medium of instruction debate in Pakistan
(h) Language vitality and language death in Pakistan
Cooper, Robert L. 1989. Language Planning and Social Change, Cambridge: Cambridge
King, Christopher R. 1994, One language, Two Scripts: The Hindi Movement in Nineteenth Century North India. Bombay: Oxford University Press.
Pollock, Sheldon (ed) Literary Cultures in History Berkeley: University of California Press. 2003
Rahman, Tariq. 1996 Language and Politics in Pakistan, Karachi: Oxford University Press. Latest edition, 2007.
Rai, Amrit. 1984. A House Divided: The Origin and Development of Hindi-Urdu New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Singh, Rajendra. 1995. Linguistic Theory, Language Contact, and Modern Hindustani New York: Peter Lang.
This course introduces the students to the use of language in real life situations. To begin with the basic definitions used in the subject are dealt with. Then the course move to the higher level of exploring interpretation, context and the investigation of speech acts. The following subjects will be dealt with in detail:
(a) Speech act theory
(b) Conversational implications
(c) Talk in interaction
(d) Ambiguity and the context of the utterance
(e) Prgamatic competence
(f) Michal Silverstein’s indexes
Austin, J.L. 1962 How to Do Things with Words Oxford : Oxford University Press.
Carston, Robyn. 2002. Thoughts and Utterances: The Pragmatics of Explicit Communication Oxford: Blackwell.
Jackson, F and Smith, M (ed).2005. Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy Oxford: Oxford UP.
Kepa Korta and John Perry .2006. ‘Pragmatics’. In The Stanford Encycloedia of Philosophy.
Leach, Geoffrey N.1983. Principles of Pragmatics London: Longman
Levinson, Stephen C .2000. Presumptive Meanings: The Theory of Generalized Conversational Implicature Boston: MIT Press.
Facchinethi, R (ed).2007. Corpus Linguistics & 25 years on New York/Amsterdam:Roaopi.
This course will introduce the students to the study of meaning at a fairly advanced level. The questions to be addressed are: how one understands concepts, ideas, reality etc. They have all been the subject of philosophical investigation for a long time. The course assumed that the student knows the simple definitions in semantics and is ready to study about the more complex concepts and carry out more sophisticated investigation into meaning. The following areas will be examined in detail:
(a) Truth- value
(b) Prototype theory
(c) Semantics memory
(d) Semantics network
(e) Latest semantic indexing
(f) Montague grammar
Cruise, Alan.2004. Meaning and Langujage: An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gardenfers, Peter. 2000. Conceptual Spaces: The Geometry of Thought Boston: The MIT Press/ Bradford Books.
Kearns, Kate.2000. Semantics London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Nielson, Hanne Riis, Nichron, Fleming. 1995. Semantics with Applications: A Formal Introduction Chichester: John Willey & Sons.
11. English for Academic Purpose
The overall aim of the course is to equip the participants with the academic skills needed to cope with the demands of a post-graduate study programme. The course offers training in the extended reading, writing and speaking skills required in academic essays, reports, assignments, presentations and seminars. Classes focus on introducing students to the academic conventions, expectations and learning strategies required this level.
By the end of the course, the students will be able to:
- have awareness of the English used in written academic contexts;
- develop an understanding of the purpose, conventions, and structure of academic writing;
- deal effectively with the reading, writing and speaking requirements of academic course, including the ability to engage in critical reading of secondary sources;
- present a coherent written argument supported by evidence from the literature
- use APA format for reference, citing and quoting
- format papers to meet APA requirement;
- develop editing and proof-reading skills;
- practice strategies and techniques to develop critical reading and thinking skills;
- improve presentation and seminar skills
- Class Discussions
- Practice Tasks
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. (6th ed.). Washington, DC.
Baker, Joanna (2003). Essential Speaking Skills. London: Continuum.
Teaching Academic English Writing: Practical Techniques. (2004).
Bernhard Spuida. (2002). Technical Writing Made Easier.
Thornbury, Scott. (20050. How to Teach Speaking. Longman.
Harmer, Jeremy. (2004). How to Teach Writing. Longman.
Murphy, Raymond. (1089). Grammar in Use: Reference and Practice for International Students. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Harmer, Jeremy. (1998). How to Teach English. Longman.
12. Second Language Acquisition
The aim of this course is to critically review current theory and research in second language acquisition to provide the course participants with a sound foundation on which to build and develop classroom practice. It develops an understanding of the principles and processes that govern second language learning and use. The course provides an overview of central issues in SLA through study of the most influential theoretical positions and significant research findings in the area.
By the end of the course, the participants will be able to:
1. gain an in-depth understanding of the field of SLA;
2. have an advanced understanding of competing theories of second language acquisition;
3. identify and assess the implications of different theories of SLA for current approaches to language teaching; and
4. examine principles and linguistic, psychological and social processes that underlie second language learning and use of second language learning and use.
1. SLA in Applied Linguistics
i. systematic nature of interlanguages
ii. order of acquisition
iii. variability within interlanguage
3. Major theories in SLA
4. Input and interaction
5. Cross-linguistic influence (CLI)
6. SLA as a cognitive process
7. SLA contexts
8. Individual learner differences
9. SLA as sociocultural practice
10. Instructed SLA
Teaching / Learning Strategies
Lectures and group discussions
1. Reading recommended texts
2. Participating in discussions and group activities
3. Demonstrating critical thinking and reflection
Students will write one critical reflection paper of 500 words. For this paper, they should display that they understand the ideas in the reading and then find one or two issues in the reading that strike them as worthy of comment or critique. They should try to make connections between the issues they choose and what has been discussed in the class. The reflective papers account for 20% of the marks for this module.
A 3000-word essay on an aspect of SLA theory and its implications for classroom practice. The essay accounts for 70% of the marks for this course.
Candlin, C. (). English language teaching in its social context.
Dirk, G., Dirven, R., & Taylor, J. R. (2008). Cognitive sociolinguistics. Berlin: Mouton de
Barkhuizen, G. (2004). Social influences on language learning. In Davies, A. & Elder, C.
(eds.), The handbook of applied linguistics (pp. 552-575). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Cook, V. (1993). Linguistics and second language acquisition. London: Macmillan.
Cook, V. (2001). Second language learning and teaching (3rd edn.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Doughty, C.J. and Long, M. H. (2003). The handbook of second language acquisition Oxford: Basil Blackwell
Hinkel, E. (2005). Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Izumi, S. (2003). Comprehension and production processes in second language learning: In search of the psycholinguistic rationale of the Output Hypothesis. Applied Linguistics,24, 2, 168-196.
Lazaraton, A. (2003). Incidental displays of cultural knowledge in the nonnative-English- speaking teacher’s classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 37, 2, 213–246.
Lightbown, P. & Spada, N. (2006). How languages are learned. (3rd edn.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mackey, A. (2006). Feedback, noticing and instructed second language learning.
Applied Linguistics, 27, 3, 405-430.
Mitchell, R & Myles, F. (2004). Second language learning theories. (2nd edn.). London: Hodder Arnold.
Saville-Troike, M. (2005). Introducing second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
A dissertation on any field of linguistics, applied linguistics or the relationship of language with culture, society, politics, education or history between 18, 000 to 20, 000 words will be submitted by the students. In rare cases, if faculty is not available or some other reasons, two additional courses instead of the dissertation may be offered. Other guidelines are as follows:
1. Meeting regarding the titles of theses and submission of research proposals at a date to be given from time to time.
2. Allocation of Supervisors.
3. Selection of External Examiners.
4. Presentation of Research Proposals before the Research Committee
5. Tutorial schedule with supervisors.
6. Sharing the BNU format.
7. Date of Final submission to be given from time to time.
8. Penalty for late submission: fine of Rs: 100 a day may be charged.
9. Four weeks will be given to the internal examiner for checking
10. To be checked for plagiarism by running it through the software. Plagiarized theses will not be forwarded to the external examiner and the student will be penalized.
14. Education Linguistics in Pakistan
This course introduces the students to the role of language in education. While a major area of interest is in the medium of instruction there is also work on other aspects of education as related to language. These include second language learning and adult education as well as experiments conducted on immersion studies and the grammar-translation method.
The specific subjects to be studied are as follows:
(a) Language and education
(b) Bernstein’s theories (restricted and elaborated codes)
(c) Varieties of language and educational handicap
(d) Additive and subtractive bilingualism
(e) Language and education debate in the world
(f) The medium of instruction debate in British India
(g) The medium of instruction debate in Pakistan
(h) History of language-learning in Pakistan and North India
(i) History of educational and language policy in Pakistan
Apple, M and Christian-Smith, L (ed) 1991. The Politics of the Textbook New York: Routledge.
Gee, J.P. 1996. Social Linguistics and literacies 2nd edition. New York, Routledge.
Liddicoat, Anthony J. (ed).2007. Issues in Language Planning and Literacy Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
Mansoor Sabiha, 2005, Language Planning in Higher Education: A Case Study of
Pakistan Karachi: Oxford University, Press.
Rahman, Tariq.1996. Language and Politics in Pakistan Karachi: Oxford University Press. Latest edition, 2007.
--------.2004. Denizens of Alien Worlds Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2006 edition.
______2002.Language, Identity and Power: Language-Learning Among the Muslims of Pakistan and North India Karachi: Oxford University Press.
Ramanathan, Vaidehi. 2005. The English-Vernacular Divide Clevedon: Multingual Matters..
Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove. 2000. Linguistic Genocide in Education or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Tollefson, J and Tsui, A. 2004. Medium of Instruction Policies: Which Agenda? Whose Agenda? Mahwah, N.J: Laurence Erlbaum.
Wiswanathan, G 1989. The Masks of Conquest New York: Columbia University Press.
15. Language Universals and Linguistic Topology
This course introduces the students to ideas about shared basic structures in al languages. The course builds upon the students knowledge of syntax and universal grammar (US) and goes on to introduce fairly advanced and contemporary developments in this branch of linguistic theory:
1.Approaches to language universals
2.Classification of language universals
3.Explanations for language universals
4.Typology and universals
7.Roles and relations
8.Constituent order typology
(a) P/V position
10. Case marking
11. Relative clauses
13. Animacy and empathy
Chomsky, Noam.2000. New Horizons in the Study of Language and Mind Cambridge: Cambridge University, Press.
Croft, William.2002. Universals and Typology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2nd ed).
Fodor, J.A. 1983. The Modularity of Mind Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press
Hyams, N. 1985. Language Acquisition and the Theory of Parameters Dordrecht: Reidel.
Lightfoot, D.1982. The Language Lottery: toward a Biology and Grammars Cambridge, M.A: MIT Press.
Roeper, T and Williams, E (eds). 1987. Parameter Setting Dordrecht: Reidel
Saleemi, Anjum P. 1992. Universal Grammar and Language Learnability Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
16. Languages of the World
This course will introduce students to the concept of language families and the way linguists have attempted to create categories and types among the 6000 plus languages of the world. Typologies will be discussed with special reference to Indo-Aryan languages. Finally the concepts of language death, language suicide and language murder will be discussed. The specific topics are:
A. (i) How many languages exist in the world?
(ii) What is a language?
(iii) What is mutual intelligibility?
(iv) How do languages change and develop?
B. Language families
(i) Historical reconstruction
(ii) The major language families
C. Morphological typology
D. Constituent order typology
(i) P/V position
(ii) Noun-Adjective processor
(iv) Head/ adjunct
E..Genetic, areal and typological relations and features.
F.Ccharacteristics of Indo-Aryan languages
G.Characteristics of Dardic languages
H. Characteristics of other language families
I. Language isolates (Basque, Burushaski)
J. Language death, language murder, language suicide
K.Language shift and its reversal
Breton, Roland J.L. 19997. Atlas of the Languages and Ethnic Communities of South Asia New Delhi: Sage.
Cardona, George and Jain, Dhanesh (ed).2003. The Indo-Aryan Languages Oxford: Routledge. Paperback edition, 2007.
Comrie, Bernard (ed). 1987. The World’s Major Languages New York: Oxford University Press.
Crystal, David.2002. Language Death Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ethnologue Dallas.Tx: SIL International, latest edition.
Fishman, Joshua A. (ed).2001. Can Threatened Languages be Saved? Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
Nettle, David and Romaine, Suzanne. 2002. Vanishing Voices: The Extinction of the World’s Languages New York: Oxford University Press.
Ruhlen, Merritt. 1975. A Guide to the World’s Languages: Classification Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Saxena, Anju (ed).2004. Himalayan Languages Past and Present Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
17. Corpus Linguistics
This course teaches how to analyze large collections of linguistic data (corpus) in order to discover linguistic help linguists’ rules, characteristics and tent hypothesis. Such large collection help linguists make scientific statements about the behavior of language in certain parameters which provide insight into the research questions under investigation. The following areas will be studied in detail:
(a) Collection of large representative samples of language (corpus)
(b) Types of corpora
(c) Sizes of corpora
(d) Computer corpora
(e) The reverse lexicon
(f) Experimental techniques in corpus analysis
(g) Tagging a text
(i) Collocations (N-grams)
Charles F. Mayer English Corpus Linguistics: An Introduction Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Facchinetti, R.2007. Theoretical Descriptio and Practical Application of Linguistic Corpura Verona: Qui Edit.
Svartvik, J, (ed). 1992 Directions in Corpus Linguistgics Berlin: Monton de Gruyter.
Mc Erery, Tony and Andes Wilson. 1996. Corpus Linguistics: An Introduction Edenburgh:Edenburgh University Press.
Facchinethi, R (ed).2007. Corpus Linguistics & 25 years on New York/Amsterdam:Roaopi.
18. Anthropological Linguistics
Linguistic anthropology (or anthropological linguistics) is the study of languages in a culture. Some of the themes in the subject overlap sociolinguistics but some of the data used by the pioneers of this academic sub-discipline was supplied by anthropologists and, therefore, the subject is of interest to anthropologists. The main themes of interest are: kinship systems and whether linguistic notions can be used to study them; whether language determines, or influences, worldview; what colour terms exist in different languages and whether the material development of a culture is related to the development of these terms; how politeness is express in different languages and cultures; how gender is encoded and expressed through language and, in general, what relationships exist between language and power.
The specific subjects covered will be as follows:
(a) The significance of language in anthropology
(b) The social construction of cultural reality through language
(c) Linguistic relativity (Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis)
(d) Language and Kinship terms (Claude Levi-Strauss etc)
(e) Colour terms in language
(f) Politeness phenomenon in languages (V/T)
(g) Keywords and culture
(h) Variation in speech
(i) Language and culture through key terms
(j) Literacy and orality
A Durranti .2001. (Ed) Key Terms in Language and Culture Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Bauman, R. and J. Sherzer, Eds .1989. Explorations in the Ethnography of Speaking, 2nd Edition Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Carroll, J.B. (Ed) .1956. Language, Thought and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T Press.
Duranti, A .1997. Linguistic Anthropology Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (LA)
Duranti, A.,& Goodwin, C (Eds).1992. Rethinking Context: Language as an Interactive Phenomenon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gumpers, J.J. and D. Hymes .1972. Directions in Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography of Communication. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Lucy, John A..1992. Language Diversity and Thought: A Reformulation of the linguistic Relativity Hypothesis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mandelbaum, D.G. (Ed) .1949. Selected Writings of Edward Sapir in Language, Culture, and Personality. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Silverstein, Michael and Greg Urban (Eds) .1996. Natural Histories of Discourse. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
19. Field Research in Linguistics
This course will introduce the students to research in linguistics. It is especially suited to those students who want to study a new language and write its grammar or make it a case study for sociological or any other kind of research.
The specific subjects to be covered are as follows:
1. Library research:
(a) Card catalogue new data bases
(b) Subject cataloguing
(c) Dewey decimal classifications and other methods of classification
(d) Finding references in printed sources
(e) Finding references in electronic sources
2. Internet research:
(a) Search engines
(b) Reference materials on the internet
(j) Google scholar / Google
(ii) Bilingual dictionaries
(iii) English dictionaries/thesaurus etc.
(iv) Wikipedia (its uses and abuses)
(v) Amazon, etc.
3. Other sources
4. Interpreting statistical data
(a) How to read a table
(b) How to read a graph
(e) Other metadata
5. Fieldwork ethics
(a) Approaching a community
(b) Status of speakers
(c) Making a contribution
(d) Encouraging first language use
(e) ‘Professional privilege’ and privacy
6. Working with a speaker
(a) Bilingual elicitation
(b) Unilingual elicitation
(c) Analyzing Texts
(d) Testing hypotheses
(e) Discourse analysis and media texts.
Burn, A and Parker, D .2003. Analysing Media Texts London: Continuum.
Johnstone, B.2000.Qualitative Methods in Sociolinguistics New York: Oxford University Press.
Nielren, J (ed) 1990. Feminist Research Methods Boulder, Co: Westview Press.
Payne, Thomas E.1997. Describing Morphosyntax: a Guide for Field Linguists Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
W.J.Samarin .1967 Field Linguistics: A Guide to Linguistic Field work New York: 1967.
Wooffintt, R. 2005. Conversation Analysis and Discourse Analysis London: Sage.
Wrany, A; Trott, K and Bloomer, A.1998. Projects in Linguistics: A practical Guide to Researching Language London: Hodder Arnold.
The aim of this course is to introduce students to the linguistic and discourse-analytical approaches to the language of creative writing or literature. Concepts of fore grading, highliting salience of language one used to understand the effect of literature on human sensibilities.
The specific areas to be studied are as follows:
(a) Foregrounded languages
(b) Types of language and the analysis of denotative and connotative linguistic usage.
(c) The style of creative writing
(d) The style of journal tic writing.
(e) Style and emotion
(f) Style and power
(g) Stylistic interpretation
Carter, Ronald (ed). 1982. Language and Literature London: University Press
Hasan, Ruqaiya. 1985. Linguistics, Language and Verbal Art Deakin University Press
Leach, Geoffrey and Short, M.G. 1981. Style in Fiction London: Longman.
Leach, Geoffrey. 1969 A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry London: Longman.
Talib, Geoffrey and Short, M.H. 1981. The Language of Postcolonial Literature: An Introduction London: Routledge.
Thornborrow, J. and Wareing. S. 1998. Patterns in Language London: Routledge.
Verdonk, P. 2002. Stylistics Oxford: Oxford University Press.
21. Language Planning
This course presents an overview of language planning (LP) and relates it to other disciplines such as politics, policy making, education and ethnicity. Different types of LP will be explained with cases from all over the world but examples from South Asian will be given special attention because of their immediate relevance for Pakistan students.
The following subjects will be studied in detail:
(a) Corpus planning (the coining of new terms, spelling reform and the adoption of a new
1. (b) Acquisition planning (the spreading of a language through education, the media and entertainment.
2. (c) Status planning (the recognition of the role of a language by a government or other significant and people groups of decision makers).
3. (d) The connection of the above with power and ethnic or national politics.
4. (e) The role of language academics in the world and in Pakistan (National Language Authority, Punjabi, Balochi, Brahvi and Sindhi LP bodies and activities).
Canagarajah, A.S. 2005. Reclaiming the Local in Language Policy and Practice New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cooper, Robert L. 1989. Language Planning and Social Change Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crauhill, N (ed). 1992. Democratically Speaking: International Perspectives on Language Planning Cape Town National Language Project.
Der-Houssikian, P.F.A.K. (ed). 1977. Language and Linguistic Problems in Africa Columbia, SC: Harnbeam.
Pennycook, A. (ed).2000. Ideology, Politics and Language Policies: Focus on English Amsterdam:John Benjuamins Co.
Rahman, Tariq. 1999. Language, Education and Culture Karachi: Oxford University Press.
Tollefson, J.W. 1991 Planning Language, Planning Inequality Harlow: Longman Group.
22. Language and Gender
This course examines the way gender is constructed and expressed through language. Students will be introduced to theoretical concepts and framework in order to give them an idea of how discourse patterns create gender norms, expectations and stereotypes.
The course will cover the following concepts and issues:
(a) Language and gender
(b) Biological sex and gender as articulated through language
(c) Pre-feminist linguistics
(d) Sexist language and andocentric generics. Guidelines on the elimination of sexist language for research writing.
(e) Women’s language (WL)
(f) Discourse analysis
(g) Gendered identities and discourses
(h) Differences and their relationship with power as articulated by language
Bergrall, V, Bing, J and Freed, A (eds). 1996. Rethinking Language and Gender Research: Theory and Practice London: Longman.
Blommaert, J. 2005. Discourse: A Critical Introduction Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Coates, J.1993. Women, Men and Language Harlow:Longman.
Goddard, A and Patterson, L.M.2000. Language and Gender London: Routledge.
Hollows, J.2000. Feminism, Femininity and Popular Culture Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Krolokke, C and Sorenson, Scott.A.2005. Gender Communication Theories and Analyses: From Silence to Performance London Sage.
Litosselita, Lia. 2006. Gender and Language: Theory and Practice London: Hodder Education
23. Philosophical Linguistics
This course will cover philosophy and linguistics as well as the philosophy of language. It will address issues at the intersection of the two disciplines (philosophy and linguistics) as well as the philosophical foundations of contemporary theoretical (broadly generative) linguistics. It will begin with a brief introduction to linguistics in the generative tradition as introduced by Noam Chomsky and linguists who worked in his tradition. After this the course will deal in more detail with philosophical issues about the discipline and with the nature of language itself. The more philosophical aspects of the course will focus on ontological and epistemological issues: What is the ontological status of natural languages, material, mental or abstract? And, having speculated about the above, the students will be encouraged to investigate the proper methods for investigating natural languages.
The specific subjects to be studied are as follows.
(b) Introduction to generative linguistics.
(c) Chomsky on the philosophy of linguistics.
(d) Research into the philosophy of linguistics.
(e) Ontological and methodological issues.
(f) Rules and representations: narrow and wide.
(g) Philosophy of language.
(h) Mental computation and representation.
Banerjee, K.K. Language, Knowledge and Ontology Delhi: Indian Council of Philosophical Research.
Daniela Isac and Charles Reiss. 2008. Language: An Introduction to Linguistics as Cognitive Science Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Devitt, Michael & Sterelny, Kim. 1987. Language and Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Language Oxford: Blackwell.
Jesperson, Otto. 1992. The Philosophy of Grammar Chicago: Chicago University Press
Noam Chomsky 2000. New Horizons in the Study of Language and Mind Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.2009.
Raskin, Victor and Nirenburg, Sergei. 2004. Ontological Semantics Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Pecheux, Michel. 1975. Language, Semantics and Ideology London: Macmillan.
Peter Ludlow. Philosophical Issues in Generative Linguistics Oxford University Press
Jackendoff, Ray .2007. Language, Culture, Consciousness Cambridge: MIT Press.
Searle, John R.1970. Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language Cambridge: Cambridge UK.
The aim of this course is to introduce students to the study of Psychological factions which enable human beings to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language. The basic research question in this discipline is to find out how the human mind processes language. The process of language acquisition, especially among children, is also a major of interest.
The specific areas which will be covered are:
(a) The mind / brain and the neurological workings of the brain
(b) The cognitive processes which enable humans to generate meaningful sentences
(c) Child language and children’s acquisition of language
(d) Aphasia and other verbal disorders
(e) Non-innovative techniques of brain imaging such as positron Emission Tomography (PET); Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (EMRI) etc.
(f) The mental lexicon
(g) Speech perception.
Carroll, D.2001. The Psychology of Language Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press
Chomsky, Noam. 2002, New Horizons in the Study of Language and Mind Cambridge:
Garman, M.2002. Psycholinguistics Beijing: University Press.
Harley, Trevor. 2008. The Psychology of Language: From Data to Theory 3rd edition. Hove: Psychology Press.
Osherson, D. (General Editor). 1995. An Invitation to Cognitive Science (2nd ed), Vol.1: Language. Gleitman et al., L. & Liberman, M. (Editors). Cambridge, MA:A Bradford
Rayner, K and Pollastek, A. 1989. The Psychology of Reading New York: Prentice Hall. Pinker, Steven. 1994. The Language Instinct New York: William Morrow.
Steinberg, Danny, D. and Sciarini, Natalia. 2006. Introduction to Psycholinguistics 2nd ed. London: Longman
25. Advanced Syntax
This course is meant for students who are already familiar with the principles and parameters as well as the Government and Binding theories. The focus here will be a functional heads and the structure of the clause. The student will also be introduced to the minimalist approach in syntax and other new developments in the theory of syntax.
The specific areas covered will be:
(a) Parameters (wh-movement)
(b) Greenberg universals
(c) X-bar theory & heads
(d) Q-roles (Theta roles)
(e) Complements and modifiers
(g) Sisterhood conditions on selection.
(h) CP & IP
(i) Apparent deviations from sisterhood conditions.
(j) Case theory and the distribution of complements.
(k) Morphological case systems.
(n) Binding & coreference.
(o) Coreference and constituent structure
(p) A-Bar movement
(s) Ellipsis & quantifier raising
Hauser, Marc and Konishi, Mark (eds). 1999. The Design of Animal Communication Cambridge MIT Press.
Cornie, Andrew.2001. Syntax: A Generative Introduction Cambridge: Blackwell
Levin, Beth and Rappaport, Malka. 1995. Unoccusativity at the Syntax-Lexical Semantics Interface Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press
Gusati, Maria Teresa. 2002. Language Acquisition the Growth of Grammar Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press
Kenstowicz. Michael (ed). 2001. Ken Hale: A Life in Language Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
26. Advanced Phonology
This course introduces the students to theories about the sound pattern of human language. The course proposes basic knowledge of both phonetics and phonology. It will deal with advanced theories about the rules which govern the combination and pronunciation of sounds in human language.
The specific areas to be covered are as follows:
(a) The generative approach to phonology
(b) Stress: primary, secondary and middle stress
(e) Metrical theory
(f) The metrical grid
(g) The theories about ‘Reversal’ (Iambic reversal, constraints on reversal, interactive research, ear thing ).
(h) The trice-and-grid phonology
(i) Zero syllables and cliticization
(j) W-pairing, S-pairing and defooting
(k) Footing in non-lexical items
(l) The role of phonology in contemporary theories of linguistic structure and meaning
Anderson, Stephen R. 1985. Phonology in the Twentieth Century Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Cully, Mc, C. Band and Hogg, Richard. 1987 Metrical Phonology: A Course Book Cambridge: Cambridge University
Gurevich, Naomi. 2004. Lenition and Contrast: The Functional Consequences of Certain Phonetically Conditioned Sound Changes New York: Routledge.
Lass, Roger. 1984. Phonology Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
McMahon, April M.S. 1994. Understanding Language Change Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Silverman, Daniel. 1997. Phasing and Recoverability New York: Garland
Silverman, Daniel. 2006. A Critical Introduction to Phonology London & New York: Continuum.
27. Advanced Morphology
This course introduces the students to morphology i.e. the words. It assumes basic knowledge of he terms and definitions used in the study of morphology. Thus, fundamental concepts such as morpheme, morph, allomorph, inflection, deviation should be known before undertaking this course. The course then proceeds to describe pre-generative, early generative and more recent theories of morphology.
The specific subjects to be studied are as follows:
(a) Morphological typology
(b) Structuralist theories of morphology
(c) Morphology and the standard theory
(d) New approaches to allomorphy
(e) The morphology-syntax interface
(f) Grammar and morphology
(g) Grammar’s theory
(h) Barker’s incorporation theory
(i) Lexical approaches to valency alternations
(j) Syntactic and lexical approaches
(k) Contemporary post-generative approaches to morphology
Bauer, L.1988. Introducing Linguistic Morphology Edinburgh: Edinburgh University press.
Bresnan, J (ed). 1982. The Mental Representation of Grammatical Relations Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press
Bybee, J. 1985. Morphology: A study of the Relation Between Meaning and Form Amsterdam: Benjamin.
Dressler, W. 1985. Morphology Ann Arbor: Karoma
Gaussman, E (ed).1985. Phonomorphology Lablin: Redakcja Wydawnictw Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Labelskiego.
Hocksema, J. 1986. Categorical Morphology New York: Garland.
Spencer, Andrew 1991 Morphological Theory Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
28. Advanced Semantics
This course introduces the students to semantics i.e scientific investigation into meaning. The basic question is how meaning is constituted through language. The subject overlaps philosophy, especially logic. It progresses from fairly simple definitions and formulations to complex treatment of the science of meaning.
The specific subjects to be studied are as follows:
(a) The meaning of ‘meaning’.
(b) Object-language and metalanguage
(c) Forms, lexemes and expression
(d) Theories of semantics
(e) Symbols, icons, indexes-and symptoms
(f) The formalization of semantics
(g) Model-theoretic and truth-conditional semantics
(h) Reference, sense and denotation
(i) Structural semantics
(j) The lexicon
(k) Deiries, space and time
(l) Mood and illocutionary face (N) Modality
Cann, R.1993. Formal Semantics: An Introduction Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chierchia, G and Mc Connell-Ginet, S.1990. Meaning and Grammar: An Introduction to Semantics Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Viegas, E (ed). 1999. Breadth and Depth of Semantic Lexicon Dordecht: Kluwer.
Ullmann, S.1951. The Principles of Semantics Glasgow: Blackwell.
Allan, Keith. 1986 Linguistic Meaning 2 volumes London & New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Love, Nigel (ed). 1990. The Foundations of Linguistic Theory London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
29. Computational Linguistics
The course is aimed to develop an understanding of linguistics and how it may be modeled and processed. The course will focus on modeling words and phrases, with some reference to higher structures, including meaning. Challenges associated with multilingual text processing and their solutions will also be addressed.
Speech and Language Processing, Second Edition, by Daniel Jurafsky and James Martin
Additional reading material will also be provided for local languages.
Corpora 1. Scripts
1, 2. Encoding and Processing
2, 3. Normalization and Collation
Words 4. Spell Checking
5, 6. Morphology and Finite State Transducers
8. Word Segmentation
Phrases 9, 10. Word classes and POS tagging
11. CFG and Language Grammars
11, 12. Rule-Based and Probabilistic Parsing of CFGs
13, 14. Annotated Grammars and Lexical Functional Grammar
Semantics 15. Lexical Semantics
15. Word Sense Disambiguation
Assignments 10% Linguistic Resource 15% Term paper 15%
Midterm 20% Final Exam 40%
You will be required to develop an annotated linguistic resource and write a term paper (2000 words) on its linguistic and computational aspects, for a Pakistani language (other languages may also be considered upon request). The term paper must have at least ten published references. Topic would need to be finalized with the Instructor. 5% extra credit will be given if the linguistic resource is tested and test results are reported in the term paper. The linguistic resource and term paper will be due on the last day of scheduled classes, through email.
There will be 25% penalty for every day after the deadline, thus you are advised to finish and submit the assignments and term paper ahead of time to avoid any last minute emergencies.
All work MUST be done independently. Any plagiarism or cheating of work from others or the internet will automatically result in at least an F grade in the course. If you are confused on what constitutes plagiarism, it is YOUR responsibility to timely consult with the instructor. No “after the fact” negotiations will be possible.